Saturday, June 20, 2020

Cannabinoid As A Treatment For Social Anxiety Disorder - Free Essay Example

2Over the past few years, marijuana and its many compounds have been becoming increasing popular around the world. One compound in particular, cannabinoid (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been of great interest as a potential treatment for numerous medical diseases. As recent as 2018, cannabinoid has been approved as an alternative anticonvulsant medications for treatment refractory seizures (Epidiolex, 2018). The success of using this drug as a treatment for this neurological disorder has lead to further research of this product for other symptoms and disorders from pain and nausea/vomiting, to a variety of psychiatric disorders. New research on CBD being an effective treatment for anxiety, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD) is promising. SAD is characterized by excessive fears of scrutiny, embarrassment, and humiliation in social or performance situations, leading to significant distress or impairment in functioning (American Psychiatric Association, 2018). This condition is estimated to affect between 3-7% of the US adult population and, if untreated, can be associated with the development of major depression, substance abuse, along with extensive functional impairment, and reduced quality of life (Ruscio et al., 2008). As the popularity of this drug increases, more patients may be tempted to try this easily accessible supplement for their mental health problems. For future medical providers, who will no doubt receive inquiries for this drug, it would be good to be able to reply with scientific, evidence-based responsed. In this literature review, we will discuss the latest research surrounding CBD and develop a better understanding if CBD is as a safe and effective for treating adults age 18-65 with SAD. These next few studies examine the effect of CBD on experimentally induced anxiety. As SAD anxiety is often acute and induced by stressful social situations, acute anxiety induced by experimental situations is a good equivalent. These studies all measure CBDs effect on acute anxiety induced from stressful experimental situations. This first study investigates the action of CBD on participants undergoing a stress-inducing neuroimaging procedure. The single-photon emission computed tomography, or SPECT, measures the limbic and paralimbic brain, areas that are known to be associated with anxiety (Crippa et al., 2011). In a double-blind placebo, 10 participants diagnosed SAD were given either CBD or a placebo and then underwent the procedure. In the next session, the same procedure was performed, with patients who received CBD in the first trial now receiving a placebo and vice versa. Participants anxiety was also measured throughout using subjective questionnaires. The results of the trials showed a significant decrease in participants subjective anxiety (p0.001) and reduced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in overlapping but distinct limbic and paralimbic areas (p†°Ã¢â‚¬ °0.001). Because the rCBF was overlapping and not exactly consistent with areas associated with anxiety, this study failed to find a correlation between the anxiolytic effects of CBD on neuroimaging. However, this study did demonstrate a reduction in presumed anticipatory anxiety associated with undergoing SPECT procedures. The next study examined the effects of CBD on healthy participants and participants with SAD undergoing a simulated public speaking test (SPST) (Bergamaschi et al., 2011). A previous 2008 study found that during a SPST, participants with SAD have higher anxiety levels, greater cognitive impairment, discomfort, and decreased alertness compared with the control group (Crippa et al.). During the study, participant with SAD or healthy controls received either CBD or a placebo in a double-blind randomized design. The participants then performed a SPST. Subjective and physiological measurements of anxiety were measured throughout the study Based on the measurements of subjective anxiety, the group with SAD who did not receive CBD had higher anxiety, cognitive impairment, discomfort, and diminished alert levels than the SAD CBD group. The study concluded that in participants with SAD, CBD reduced subjective anxiety symptoms resulting in a similar response to the SPST as healthy controls, yet no significant differences were noted among the physiological measures of anxiety. In another 2013 study, a Pavlovian fear and learning mechanism was used to induce conditioned fear on participants by shocking them with a colored box and electric shocks ((Das et al., 2013). This study sought to examine CBD on Pavlovian fear and learning mechanisms as they are an important component to anxiety disorders (Watson Rayner, 1920). Once participants established fear of the box, the researchers tested how long it took to un-condition that fear or for that fear to go through extinction. The participants were divided into three groups, one group receiving CBD before fear extinction, one receiving CBD after fear extinction, and one not receiving CBD at all. Throughout the study, anxiety, current mood, and physical symptoms were assessed with various subjective questionnaires, skin conductance response, and shock expectancy following extinction. The results of this study found that CBD had no acute effects on fear extinction. However, CBD given to the post-extinction group enhanced consolidation of extinction as measured by shock expectancy. The study also found that CBD given either pre or post-extinction reduced restoration of autonomic contextual responding. These preliminary findings show promising evidence that CBD may be an effective adjunct to extinction-based therapies for anxiety disorders. Now that we have examined studies that that show a positive correlation between CBD and reduced anxiety in SAD and healthy volunteers, we will now look at some studies that come to different conclusions. Some studies have concluded that CBD has no effect on baseline anxiety in healthy volunteers. A 2012, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled trial looked at the effects CBD compared to THC and a placebo on 16 healt hy volunteers (Martin-Santos et al.). The drugs and placebo were administered in consecutive sessions in a one-month interval. Symptoms of anxiety were measured using physiological measurements and symptoms ratings at the 1, 2, and 3-hour intervals. The data was analyzed and the researches concluded that there were no differences between the CBD and placebo on any symptomatic or physiological variables. However, unlike previous studies discussed, participants were not placed in simulated anxiety-inducing situations. Though the study may have found no effect of CBD on baseline anxiety, had these volunteers been placed in acutely stressful situations, maybe CBD would have had an anxiolytic effect. Another more recent study found similar results. This study was looking into the effects of THC and CBD, both alone and combined on subjects ability to process emotional affects deficits in which are characteristic of mood disorders like depression or anxiety (Hindocha et al. 2015). Partici pants involved varied in at-home cannabis use and had various types of schizotypy. In a 4-way, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, participants inhaled either THC, CBD, both THC and CBD, or a placebo and completed an emotional facial affect recognition task and a visual analogue scale of how stoned participants felt, was completed. The study concluded that CBD did not influence feelings of being stoned and improved recognition of emotional facial affects and weakens the impairment induced by THC. However, the study also investigated the correlation between self-report measures with performance on the emotional processing task across CBD administration, to see whether baseline psychological wellbeing was associated with performance accuracy. However, no statistically significant correlation was found, with ps 0.05 after analysis. This demonstrates an opposite correlation from the earlier study where CBD improved cognitive impairment, discomfort, and diminished alert levels all associated with diminished performance accuracy (Bergamaschi et al., 2011). Again, CBDs effect was only tested on these participants baseline anxiety, and not its effect on participants in anxiety augmented scenarios. Though CBD may not show as promising evidence as a treatment for long-term anxiety like generalize anxiety disorder, it does show efficacy as treatment for acute anxiety like in social anxiety disorder. Various studies have established clinical evidence for CBDs efficacy for SAD. We will now examine how CBD compares to other treatments for SAD. Current medical therapies for this disorder include drugs like selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), and benzodiazepines (Stein, 2018). These medications are not without side effects and adverse health outcomes. Also, unlike CBD, in the case of many of these medications (ex: SSRIs) a patient may have to take the medication for several weeks before they feel the effect of the medication (Taylor et al. 2006). A systemic review analyzed recent studies on CBD, both preclinical animal studies and clinical studies on humans (Blessing et al., 2015). The study noted that there was substantial evidence that CBD showed comparable efficacy to ipsapirone (a 5-HT1AR agonist) or diazepam (a benzodiazepine), other treatments for SAD. The downside to all of these studies include small sample size, sample bias, and lack of serum CBD levels to correlate with subjective and physiologic measures of anxiety. Though there are many pre-clinical animal studies confirming its effectiveness for treating many mental health disorders, there are few clinical trials that have concluded its efficacy and many of which demonstrate mixed results (Blessing et. al., 2015). Unfortunately with todays regulatory and sociopolitical climate, research on marijuana and its many components is significantly limited (Farach et al., 2012). Until it becomes easier for research on CBD to be performed, including recruiting large enough sample sizes to sufficiently identify comprehensive treatment effects, there may not be adequate evidence to support CBD as an effective treatment for anxiety. Though it may be hard in the current climate to definitely prove that CBD is effective for SAD, CBD is still a product that is currently available over the counter to everyone. For people who have heard about the proposed power of the drug and want to try it, are there any risks in taking it? In this next portion of the paper, the safety profile and side effects of CBD will be discussed. A 2011 literature review examines the safety and side effect profile of CBD and concluded that based on recent advances in CBD administration, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals (Bergamaschi et al.). The study looked at the effect of CBD on in vitro studies animals find CBD to have no effect on embryonic development, increased food intake, development of catalepsy, and no effect on motor changes.  Additionally, in animal models, the review found that CBD had no effect on many physiological parameters including blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, glucose levels and did not induce ataxia, tremors, vomiting, and many other negative physical effects. In human studies, even at a wide range of doses, CBD was not found to cause adverse side effects in acute or chronic studies. CBD does not interfere with heart rate, blood pressure, or performance in a verbal paired associated learning test (Zuardi et al., 1982). Chronic studies even found it may be an effective treatment for refractory cases of schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, Parkinsons disease, and cannabis addiction (Bergamaschi et al.). The systemic review did note that in several in vitro and in vivo studies CBD had to the potential to interact with hepatic drug metabolism, decreased capacity of fertilization, and decrease activity of some drug transporters. The review concluded with a statement that CBD, even at relatively high doses and with chronic use, is well tolerated in humans. The review does admit that further research is needed to determine accuracy of the reported side effects and that constant monitoring of the drug is required when used for clinical use. As previously mentioned, CBD is FDA approved as prescription as adjuvant therapy for seizure disorder (Epidiolex, 2018). Clinical trials of the drug found that potential side effects of this drug include central nervous system depression (drowsiness, lethargy, sedation, etc.), skin rash, weight loss, decreased appetite, anemia, increase serum alanine aminotransferase and transaminases, infection, and asthenia. Though the only contraindication to this medication involves a hypersensitivity reaction to CBD, there are other warnings that patients must be aware of before taking this medication. For example, CBD may cause CNS depression, which may be hazardous if driving or operating heavy machinery. Also, the increase in liver transaminases have caused a few patients to become hospitalized. Though patients who are most often have a significant increase in hepatic transaminases have a high baseline transaminase, use other seizure medication that are hepatotoxic, and take a high dose of CB D. Though there is evidence that CBD in general has a good safety profile, people should still be cautious when taking it, even when the CBD they are taking is prescribed from a doctor and FDA approved. Unfortunately, the popularity of this miracle cure is not affected by the lack of solid scientific confirmation and largely unknown safety profile. There are abundant of producers and sellers of CBD that are active in the market distributing CBD as a supplement without regulation (Hazekamp, 2018). There are growing concerns over the legality, quality, and safety of this new over the counter drug. A 2017 study investigated the content of 46 different samples of CBD (Hazekamp). The samples came from various sources, some home-made and some were purchased from an online webstore, some had labels describing the contents, some did not. The researchers then analyzed the components of the CBD oil and compared it, when possible, to the contents advertised on the label. The study found that not only did the CBD content widely vary from the advertised about, 15% of the samples contained no CBD at all while 57% of the samples also contained 1% THC. Though many of the samples, analyzed advertised a high THC content, the researchers where unclear whether CBD consumers were always aware of this. Additionally, the study found there was a high level of non-decarboxylated cannabinoids, a precursor to CBD, in many samples. These non-carboxylated cannabinoids are converted to CBD after proper heating, yet research on the efficacy and safety of these precursors is significantly limited. This is not an isolated stud, many other studies have developed similar conclusions about questionable CBD content of many products on the market. Since 2015, the FDA has issued an annual warning letter about CBD drugs on the market that do not contain the levels of CBD they claimed (2015/2016 warning letters and test results for cannabidiol-related products). CBD therefore may be an effective therapy for SAD, if CBD truly does have the assumed anxiolytic properties confirmed in animal trials and the few clinical trials. If the side effect profile of the drug is indeed safe, it may be a good alternative to current medications used for this drug. However, current clinical evidence for this medication is mixed, and while many case reports and animal studies show positive evidence of CBDs efficacy, providers should still be cautious recommending CBD to patients.  Additionally, CBD is not without side effects and risks even when the product is FDA approved. Current products available to consumers have unknown CBD content that is not subjected to any regulatory body. Before this new medication can be recommended to patients for SAD, more research must be done.

Saturday, June 6, 2020

Divorce Effects On Children Essay

BLOG In: Popular topics Most of family problems were actual long time ago. Incomplete families, divorces, conflicts between spouses, problems of loneliness had existed earlier but did not attract as much attention as it does nowadays. Besides, people became more aware of love, spiritual affinity and understanding, sex. Getting married does not guarantee a person full happiness and solving possible problems at once. Marriage is formation of interrelations between a spouse, children and relatives every day. Most of people have a serious attitude towards it. They hope to live long and happy family life. Unfortunately, not all couples are capable of preserving their families. They may have conflicts and quarrels leading to divorces and unpleasant consequences. Divorce, being a formal termination of marriage, leads to break of relationships between husband and wife but not between spouse and children. Despite the number of kids in a family, divorces can cause the problems of further financial and psychological welfare of a child, division of responsibilities for a kid care, paying alimony and building relations between former spouses and their child. You will find information useful for you in the effects of divorce on children essay. If you need an essay of other topic, you can order it at Star-writers.com. The impact of parents divorce on a child can be positive as well as negative and it also depends on its reasons, relations between husband and wife and the relationship of each parent with the child. I suggest you to read both sides in this effect of divorce on children essay. Divorce as a process itself does not influence a child negatively. However, disintegration of a family without any apparently acute conflicts between parents can negatively affect the behavior and success of the child. In the first place, a divorce for a child is stress, which can lead to anti-social behavior, conflict with one of the parents, a wish to grow up quickly under conditions of weakening parental control. A number of studies have shown that a child, who has gone through a divorce, undergoes a greater influence on behavior than the one who has experienced the death of a parent. In addition, a number of researchers noted that children, who have gone through the divorce of their parents, study worse at school, start their sex life earlier and often give birth to children out of a partnership. They are getting married sooner than it may happen and divorce faster because their perceptions of family life are formed in a negative way. Such negative impact on children's success ca n be explained by economic problems and tensions between divorced parents as well as the fact of living in incomplete family. Dwelling of minor child in a decaying family, where lame relations and conflicts between parents predominate, does not guarantee kids prosperity. Deviant behavior of one of the parents like alcoholism, drug addiction, violence is a meaningful cause for breaking up. Divorce plays a positive role in such cases. It helps a child to escape from the constant stress and experiences. It is typical for both boys and girls to manifest less positive emotions during the process of divorce and the first time after it. Although boys tend to have more aggressive behavior after their parents divorce, girls experience greater negative effect of divorce that forms wrong impression of future family life. Childrens age plays an important role in their reaction to the divorce. A more adult child is experiencing more stress during the disorder in the relationship of parents, constant quarrels and conflicts. Separation of parents can improve the psychological condition of the child during this period. Most children can also feel betrayed by their parents and may even start to hate the one who has left their family. The moment when one of spouses is leaving their house is the most painful point for younger kids. They want their parents to get back together. Younger children can blame themselves that their parents are going to divorce and are not capable of getting rid of such thoughts. Getting through the divorce, they become more dependent on their parents: they need more care and love. It is necessary to mention aspects of impact of parents separation on a minor child in effects of divorce on children essay: Possible conflict between parents. The conflict between the parents in the family leading to divorce can go on after the divorce. Good relationships between parents after divorce, as well as regular contact between the child and his mother and father are necessary for a childs gradual adaptation to divorce situation. However, cases of the preserved conflict between the former spouses often lead to prohibitions of meetings, communication and worsening of relationship between the child and the custodial parent, and increase the likelihood of a childs depression. Negative relationship between a parent and a child. In the case of the negative relationship between a parent and a child, the court prefers to assign custody of the child to the parent with better relations and treatment. Nonetheless, stress, emotions and changes in kids behavior can lead to a worsening of relationship between a child and a cohabiting parent. The first two years after the divorce are the most difficult for the child and for his parents: they need certain time to adapt to new roles, relationships, changes in everyday practice. A parent, raising a child without a spouse, starts to combine the role of the single breadwinner and educator in the family. It may lead to the weakening of control over the behavior of the child as well as to the difficulties in childs upbringing as it is impossible for one parent to compensate the absence of another one. Changes in family structure due to appearance of new family members. Downgrading from a state of the parents to the divorced spouses can lead to a further change in their family situation: the former spouses may come together again, stay alone or create a family with new partners. The relationships between children and parents, who are divorced, lead to complications in family relations when mother and father start dating with new partners. Conflicts may appear between a child and a new parent as well as between spouses and children from different families in the case of second wedlock. Divorce from a legal point of view, means the formal termination of a valid marriage between spouses, but not the termination of the relationship between parents and children. Common children are the link in the relationship between the former spouses. Each year, a significant number of children face the problem of family disintegration. Relationships between parents and children, living separately, are being formed in different ways after spouses break up. Researches have been disputing about the problem of the effect of divorces on the child's development and creation of new family for long period of time. There is no exact answer to the question of whether the divorce is bad or good. The situation of each disintegrating family is individual. In some cases, family breakdown leads to better psychological atmosphere in the family, material well-being, child development conditions. In other cases, divorce is a stressful situation for the child, the cause of changing ones behavior and greatly affects the financial welfare of the family. In some families the relations between parents and children are not changed after the divorce, other families face the indifference. In the third ones cessations of communication of one of the parents and a child may happen due to the initiative of a parent oneself as well as due to the ban of a former spouse. If you would like to find more essays you can easily visit our blog. If you have some problems with writing essays, be sure that you will find necessary information using our service.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Research Week - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 795 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2019/10/10 Did you like this example? SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: The sampling process is defined as the selecting of sufficient numbers of suitable elements to carry out a research process.   The sampling process includes two main types of sampling, probability sampling and non-probability sampling. PROBABILITY SAMPLING: This type of sampling is applicable when elements in the population have a known chance of being chosen as subjects. Probability sampling can be restricted or unrestricted probability sampling. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Research Week" essay for you Create order Unrestricted or Simple Random Sampling: In this sampling, every element in the population has a known and equal chance of being selected as subject. Consider a jar full of 100 marbles, out of which we need a sample of 10 marbles. If we were to draw out 1 marble from this population, we know that this marble will have 1/100 chance of being drawn, the second marble will have 1/99 chance of being drawn and so on. Restricted Probability Sampling: Unlike simple random sampling, this type of sampling technique offers a more efficient way to select a sample. Below are the types of restricted probability sampling: Systematic sampling: This design involves drawing every nth element in the population beginning with a randomly chosen element between 1 and n. for example, if we want a sample of 40 houses from a total population of 300 houses in a particular city, then we could sample every fifth house starting from a random number from 1 to 5. Let us assume that the random number was 5, then houses labelled 5, 10, 15, and 20 would be chosen for the study until the 40 houses were selected. Stratified Random Sampling: As the name suggests, stratified random sampling involves stratification or segregation of population, followed by random selection of subjects from each stratum. The population is firstly divided into mutually exclusive groups that are relevant to the study and then sample is drawn from it. Examples of this type are stratifying customers on the basis of income levels, age groups and residence in certain localities. Cluster Sampling: These are the samples gathered in chunks or groups (hence clusters) from a population. In this sampling, the target population is first divided into clusters and then a random sample of cluster is drawn from it. From this chosen cluster either all the elements are chosen or a sample is chosen from amongst it. A type of cluster sampling is area sampling in which clusters comprise of geographical areas such as countries, cities or city blocks. For example if you want to study the lifestyle trend of residents living in Minnesota, you would chose a cluster sample from Minnesotan city population and then choose a sample from this cluster for your study. Double Sampling: This sampling is used when further information is required from the subset of a group from which some information has already been extracted. An example of this is questioning a group of customers about the choice of a particular cold drink they prefer when they have already responded to the question of whether they prefer cold drinks over water is double sampling. NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING: This type of sampling requires no probabilities to be attached to samples being chosen for the study. Many statisticians use this technique as an inexpensive alternative to probability sampling. Below are the types of non-probability sampling techniques: Convenience Sampling: As the name suggests, convenience sampling involves collection of information from members of the population who are conveniently available for observation. An example of this is choosing a group of random customers in a shopping mall to conduct a study of their views on taste of a noodles brand. Purposive Sampling: In contrast to obtaining information from respondents who are readily available, sometimes respondents are chosen who can provide the needed information, either because they are the only ones who have that information or they fulfill some criteria set by researcher. This purposive sampling takes two forms, judgement sampling and quota sampling: Judgement sampling: This involves choosing the subjects who are in the best position to respond to researcher due to the information that they have. For example, if the researcher wants to find out what it takes for women managers to make it to the top of the hierarchy, he would approach those women who had been previously at secretarial positions but later progressed to top positions because they have gone through the experience and can respond effectively. Quota sampling: In this sampling, certain quota is assigned to the chosen group of subjects that may have been chosen randomly. For example to understand the work attitude of workers in an organization, a quota can be set. If there are 40% blue-collar workers and 60% white-collar workers and if a total of 20 workers are needed to respond to questions, a quota of 8 blue-collar and 12 white-collar workers can be set. After that the first conveniently available 8 blue-collar workers and 12 white-collar workers can be chosen for the study.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Professional Essay example - 1116 Words

Professional I remember when my sister and I would play school with our friends. It was one of the best experiences that I had. It was this experience that helped me make up my mind about being a teacher. Now as I move through the different stages in the educational program, I have determined that I have developed certain beliefs. By teaching and working with children, people can see my beliefs. My philosophy towards education is progressivism. Progressivism can be found in my views about public schools, my teaching methods, and my curriculum. First, my view towards public schools comes from my own experiences, as a student and from my observations. The main purpose of education is to teach students†¦show more content†¦Second, I determined that I have a progressivism view in my teaching method, which can be divided in to two groups. The first group is when students will use their knowledge and reason to solve questions. Some examples are problem solving, decision-making, and critical thinking, where they must come up with their own solutions to the problems. To teach this I will use some written problems or role-playing. I will have them play games that will stimulate them to think. One time I played brainteaser with the students, which was a game to help them with their SATS. Some knew all the correct answers, while others learned new information and had fun at the same time. The second group is having students interact with each other. Some examples are project-based instruction, cooperative learning activities, and scientific investigation. In this group they can help each other and learn new knowledge. Everybody thinks in different ways; because of this a different viewpoint can shine some light on the problem. Here as a teacher I can play games, put students into groups, or go on trips. As a teacher, I will have my students help me come up with rules and discipline actions. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sarah Worked For Paychex As A Young Woman Essay - 1694 Words

A young woman, Sarah worked for Paychex as a sales representative in Rochester, New York. She was hired by the company on June 24, 2015, soon after she completed her Bachelor’s degree at Syracuse University. She had all of the qualifications that the job requested for. She was a diligent worker and in her half a year at the company doubled the sales of the previous representative. She thoroughly enjoyed what she did for a living and looked forward to coming to work every morning. Ryan, another employee of the company had worked for Paychex for three years. He graduated from the University of Buffalo with a dual degree in marketing and business management in 2012. Ryan was the manager of the entire sales department. With his knowledge and experience in the company he was able to run the department efficiently and effectively. Ryan’s job included making sure that all employees in his department were working to their full potential without any issues or problems. Sarah was good at her job, but because she was new there were a few things she needed to learn and work to improve. She was effective at working with other companies, but the paper work aspect seemed to overall the young girl. Ryan continued to work with Sarah giving her tips and plans on how to handle the workload. Sarah’s job description stated her responsibilities as promoting the company and getting other small companies to use the resources that Paychex offered, along with any paper work, emails,

Extracurricular Activities And Academic Success - 1230 Words

Surveys show that around eighty percent of students participate in extracurricular activities. Participating in an extracurricular activity involves balance between the activity and academics while gaining positive impacts. Many people do not see or understand the importance of extracurricular activities. Critics might argue that extracurricular activities may harm student academic success, but what they do not realize is the benefits from extracurricular activities. The following argument started when the question was raised of how students were spending their leisure time and what they gained from their involvement. After school hours are the peak time for bad behaviors and crime for students. However, extracurricular activities provide a shelter for students for fun activities. Extracurricular activities contribute positively to student academic success by teaching responsibility, time management, and team building skills. Responsibility is a substantial skill developed from extra curricular activities that impact academic success. Responsibility promotes students to be held accountable for their actions. For example, students learn that they cannot always count on their parents. Students learn there will be times when they have to do things on their own and figure out life by themselves. Parents are not always going to be there by your side. Thankfully, extracurricular activities allow students to use responsible skills in and outside of school. Responsibility givesShow MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Extracurricular Activities On Academic Success1130 Words   |  5 PagesChristine Lasagne Dr. Joseph Centamore EDL 502 – APA March 23, 2017 The Effect of Extracurricular Activities on Academic Success Academic achievement can be influenced by a variety of factors. Studies have shown the link between extracurricular activities and improved attendance, behavior, and academic performance. 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Thesis Critique for Business and Management- myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theThesis Critique for Business and Management. Answer: Introduction Employee ownership: Evaluating the Factors Contributing to Successful Employee Engagement by Heather Jayne Rowley deals with the factors which contribute to successful employee engagement. The study explores the engagement of employees in the employee owned organizations. In addition to this, it includes the factors which contribute to the successful engagement of the employees. The study considers the role of employees in facilitating the engagement of the employees in employee owned organizations. This study adopts a qualitative approach of research, where three employees owned organizations are used as the basic sample for the collection of data. Moreover, the practices of the employees, obstacles to the engagement and the required solutions are clearly mentioned. The study also includes how the engagement of employees sustains and supports ownership of any organization. Several concepts are applied from engagement of the employees to employee ownerships, in order to explain the situation and existence of the employee engagement in the employee owned companies. Purpose and Objectives of the Study The purpose of the study is clearly identified and discussed in the dissertation. Moreover, semi structured interviews, reflective research and focus groups are used for capturing the experiences ranges as well as perceptions. The data is presented after complete analysis in the narrative format and the identification of key themes is done using the thematic analysis. The study explains that the engagement of the employees helps in enhancing the experience of the ownership of employees. Furthermore, it also presents the idea of the employee engagement being influenced by the employee ownership. Evidences are presented from authentic sources which further claims that the employee ownership is highly influenced by employee engagement. Therefore, it can be said that the factors are clearly identified and discussed in the study (Rowley, 2014). Theoretical Framework The research design is appropriate as it is aimed to explore the employee ownership and the factors which contribute to successful employee engagement. The gathering of data and information is done in a good manner. The interviews and survey helped gain useful insights, thus, the qualitative method proved to be beneficial for the research. However, the sample was not much large, but the information was authentic. In this research, the variety of definitions of employee engagement helped in discussing the factors associated with it. The results of the study are desirable which suggests that employee engagement helps in influencing employee ownership. It also differentiates other existing factors like job satisfaction, organizational and employee behavior as well as attitude. The research throws light on how employee ownership is different from other factors as the employee willingness helps them discuss the improvements in work around them. The data collection methods included; literature review of available sample over the internet, journals, thesis analysis, and survey conducted among employees and others, interviews of three employee owned organizations, questionnaires and observations, case studies of available data and information, governmental documents and archival data and lastly the focus groups. The procedures of collecting the data was identifying the issues, setting a goal, planning a method or an approach, collection of relevant data, analysis of surveys and interviews, interpretation of the data and pre existing or official data. On analyzing the data, descriptive methods are used for the whole study. Appropriate articles are selected to present the data on the basis of measurement level of variable. Analysis of the surveys and interview is done in an unbiased manner, without hiding or concealing any facts. Lastly, all data are summarized by using the descriptive method. Situating the Study within the research The relationship between the employee engagement and employee ownership is proposed and directed to this research study, which is identified. It is understood, from the literatures used, that the employee engagement provides direction for the involvement as well as participation. The data collected from various sources helped in gathering information regarding a balanced as well as effective employee ownership and engagement. The good points in the dissertation are conducting interviews and surveys helped in gaining useful insights, which established the whole report. However, several challenges were faced during the completion of the project. In addition to this, some of the challenges, which the study may encounter, are discussed in this part of the report. Such limitations could have been unused through the representation of perceptions as well as experiences of the respondents in a narrative manner. Gaps in the literature review have been identified as the engagement of the employees is left unexplored in the fields of some employee owned companies. Furthermore, the lack of studies and literature evidence being provided, led to the consideration of the alternative perspectives of how the engagement of the employees may strengthen the employee ownership. The research questions development has been designed in order to explore the engagement of the employees from different angles and the role of employees in ownership. However, there are certain limitations in the research. The findings of the study represents three employee owned companies. The sample size is small due to limited span of time. However, more interviews and surveys could have given variety of answers. Each research type has its own specific implications. Research Approach The research design is relatable to the research hypothesis and questions. The questions were, however, studied and in depth analysis is done with the usage of specific data analysis methods. The questions received satisfactory answers and the procedure was appropriate. The questionnaire is used to analyze the whole research. Qualitative research method also proved to be beneficial for the study. Furthermore, the research design was interesting and the sample was targeted to the employees as well as organizations. The concept of the research is clearly presented. The topic is introduced, along with the definition the key terms. For supporting the research and establishing the points, survey and interview methods are applied, in order to hold the points appropriately and clearly. It proved the influence of employee engagement in employee owned organizations. Moreover, pre existing journals and theses are reviewed and presented well in the report. The research topics nature generates some inductive research style. The literature review presents different kinds of interpretations of the employee engagement. The study focuses on the experiences of the employees and the occurrences. Employee ownership and employee engagement is understood as an individual concept. However, there are weak theoretical evidences for explaining or demonstrating the relationship between both two concepts. Inductive approach of the research is taken in order to generate a new theory, which will enable in getting a clear idea of relationship between the employee ownership and employee engagement. The existing theories are used to provide the research with a starting point. The knowledge base is being developed through this and the inductive procedure totally reflects upon the information and data created in order to find the evidences, to support the theory. Research Methodology The results of the study are desirable and the methodology is clear and fully reported. Moreover, the data collection methods included; literature review of available sample over the internet, journals, thesis analysis, and survey conducted among employees, interviews of the organizations as well as employees, questionnaires and observations, case studies of available data and information, governmental documents and archival data and lastly the focus groups. The procedures of collecting the data was identifying the issues, setting a goal, planning a method or an approach, collection of relevant data, analysis of surveys and interviews, interpretation of the data and pre existing or official data. On analyzing the data, descriptive methods are used for the whole study. Appropriate articles are selected to present the data on the basis of measurement level of variable. Analysis of the surveys and interview is done in an unbiased manner, without hiding or concealing any facts. Lastly, all data are summarized by using the descriptive method. The research design is appropriately aimed to explore the employee engagement and employee owned organizations. The gathering of data and information is done in a good manner. The interviews and survey helped gain useful insights, thus, the qualitative method proved to be beneficial for the research. However, the sample was not much large, but the information was authentic. In the literature review, several gaps have been identified as the engagement of the employees is left unexplored in the fields of some employee owned companies. In addition to this, the lack of studies and literature evidence being provided, led to the consideration of the alternative perspectives of how the engagement of the employees may strengthen the employee ownership. Presentation and analysis of the results Qualitative research method is used for the study and the data tools are mainly reviews of available sample over the internet, journals, thesis analysis, and survey conducted among educators as well as parents, literature reviews, interviews questionnaires and observations, case studies of available data and information, governmental documents and archival data and lastly the focus groups. The procedures of collecting the data was identifying the issues, setting a goal, planning a method or an approach, collection of relevant data, analysis of surveys and interviews, interpretation of the data and pre existing or official data. On analyzing the data, descriptive methods are used for the whole study. Appropriate articles are selected to present the data on the basis of measurement level of variable. Analysis of the surveys and interview is done in an unbiased manner, without hiding or any facts. Lastly, all data are summarized by using the descriptive method. Conclusion To conclude, the research study presented the occurrence of the employee engagement in employee owned companies or organizations. The findings are summarized using the descriptive method. However, further research can be carried out using this sample. The research study has certain limitations as the time was limited. However, the research study helped in exploring the relationship between the employee engagement and employee ownership successfully. It can provide a strong foundation for the future researchers who will work on this topic. References Rowley, H. (2014).Employee Ownership: Evaluating the Factors Contributing to Successful Employee Engagement(Doctoral dissertation, University of York). Bibliography Bloomberg, L. D., Volpe, M. (2012).Completing your qualitative dissertation: A road map from beginning to end. Sage Publications. Herr, K., Anderson, G. L. (2014).The action research dissertation: A guide for students and faculty. Sage publications. Horn, R. (2012).Researching and writing dissertations: A complete guide for business and management students. Kogan Page Publishers. Joyner, R. L., Rouse, W. A., Glatthorn, A. A. (2012).Writing the winning thesis or dissertation: A step-by-step guide. Corwin Press. Liu, Q., Brown, D. (2015). Methodological synthesis of research on the effectiveness of corrective feedback in L2 writing.Journal of Second Language Writing,30, 66-81. Rudestam, K. E., Newton, R. R. (2014).Surviving your dissertation: A comprehensive guide to content and process. Sage Publications. Wester, K. L., Borders, L. D., Boul, S., Horton, E. (2013). Research quality: Critique of quantitative articles in the Journal of Counseling Development.Journal of Counseling Development,91(3), 280-290.